In February 1965 President Charles de Gaulle
announced his intention to exchange its U.S. dollar reserves for gold at the official exchange rate.
By 1966, non-US central banks held $14 billion, while the United States had only $13.2 billion in gold reserve. Of those reserves, only $3.2 billion was able to cover foreign holdings as the rest was covering domestic holdings.
By 1971, the money supply
had increased by 10%.
In May 1971, West Germany
left the Bretton Woods system, unwilling to revalue the Deutsche Mark
In the following three months, this move strengthened its economy. Simultaneously, the dollar dropped 7.5% against the Deutsche Mark.
Other nations began to demand redemption of their dollars for gold.Switzerland
redeemed $50 million in July.
France acquired $191 million in gold.
On August 5, 1971, the United States Congress
released a report recommending devaluation
of the dollar, in an effort to protect the dollar against “foreign price-gougers”.
On August 9, 1971, as the dollar dropped in value against European currencies, Switzerland left the Bretton Woods system.
The pressure began to intensify on the United States to leave Bretton Woods.
At the time, the U.S. also had an unemployment rate of 6.1% (August 1971)[notes 1]
and an inflation rate of 5.84% (1971).
On the afternoon of Friday, August 13, 1971, these officials along with twelve other high-ranking White House and Treasury advisors met secretly with Nixon at Camp David
. There was great debate about what Nixon should do, but ultimately Nixon, relying heavily on the advice of the self-confident Connally, decided to break up Bretton Woods by suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold; freezing wages and prices for 90 days to combat potential inflationary effects; and impose an import surcharge of 10 percent,
to prevent a run on the dollar, stabilize the US economy, and decrease US unemployment and inflation rates, on August 15, 1971:
- Nixon directed Treasury Secretary Connally to suspend, with certain exceptions, the convertibility of the dollar into gold or other reserve assets, ordering the gold window to be closed such that foreign governments could no longer exchange their dollars for gold.
- Nixon issued Executive Order 11615 (pursuant to the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970), imposing a 90-day freeze on wages and prices in order to counter inflation. This was the first time the U.S. government enacted wage and price controls since World War II.
- An import surcharge of 10 percent was set to ensure that American products would not be at a disadvantage because of the expected fluctuation in exchange rates.
Speaking on television on August 15, the Sunday before the markets opened, Nixon said the following: